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Inilah 27 Tsunami Terdahsyat yang Mengguncang Dunia!

Tsunami, yang bermakna gelombang pelabuh an dalam bahasa Jepang, terjadi akibat deforma si dasar laut yang melahirkan gelombang tinggi. Biasanya setinggi 15-30 meter, seperti pada tsunami Aceh, tapi pernah mencapai 520 meter di Alaska pada 1958. Jepang boleh dibilang sebagai negri tsunami. Karena sebagian besar tsunami dahsyat terjadi di sana.

gelombang tsunami yang melanda jepang
Kemarin gelombang pasang Tsunami yang dipicu Gempa menyapu sepanjang pantai Iwanuma, Jepang utara, Jumat (11/3). Besarnya gempa 8,9 menghantam pantai timur Jepang Jumat, menyebabkan tsunami setinggi 4 meter, menyapu kapal, mobil, bangunan dan puing-puing ke daratan. Ada kilang minyak terbakar hebat, bahkan dikabarkan ada kebocoran radiasi nuklir di instalasi pembangkit listrik tenaga nuklir, sehingga penduduk harus dievakuasi.
Berikut ini daftar gelombang Tsunami terdahsyat yang mengguncang dunia.

1. 426 SM: Teluk Maliakos, Yunani Timur
Inilah pertama kalinya orang menghubungkan tsunami dengan gempa yang terjadi sebelumnya.

2. 21 Juli 365: Alexandria, Mediterania Timur
Tsunami setinggi lebih dari 30 meter. Membunuh ribuan orang, kapal terhembalang ke daratan sejauh 3,2 kilometer.

3. 684: Hakuho, Jepang
Tsunami pertama yang tercatat di Jepang, setelah gempa 8,4 pada skala Richter.

4. 887: Ninna Nankai, Jepang
Tsunami melantakkan Kyoto. Pantai dan teluk Osaka rusak berat.

5. 1361: Shuhei Nankai, Jepang
Gempa 8,4 SR dan tsunami Nankaido menewaskan 660 orang, menghancurkan 1.700 rumah.

6. 1541: Nueva Cadiz, Venezuela
Kota Nueva Cádiz, yang berpenghuni 1.500 orang, disapu gempa dan tsunami.

7. 1605: Keich Nankaido, Jepang
Gempa 8,1 SR dan tsunami 30 meter menenggelamkan 5.000 orang.

8. 1700: Pulau Vancouver, Kanada
Gempa Cascadia, yang berkekuatan 9 MW, menyebabkan tsunami besar yang merambat ke Pasifik Barat Laut hingga ke Jepang.

9. 1707: Huei, Jepang
Gempa 8,4 SR memicu tsunami 25,7 meter yang menghantam Kochi Prefecture, menghancurkan 29 ribu rumah dan menewaskan lebih dari 50 ribu orang.

10. 1755: Lisabon, Portugal
Tsunami setinggi 15 meter menewaskan ratusan ribu orang. Dalam empat jam, gelombang tsunami sampai ke Cornwall, Inggris, sejauh 1.600 kilometer.

11. 1771: Kepulauan Yaeyama, Okinawa, Jepang
Tsunami setinggi 85 meter menenggelamkan belasan ribu orang.

12. 1792: Gunung Unzen, Kyushu, Jepang
Letusan gunung api menyebabkan tanah longsor, yang menimbulkan tsunami setinggi 100 meter (megatsunami kecil).

13. 1833: Sumatera, Indonesia
Gempa berkekuatan 8,8-9,2 SR mengakibatkan tsunami besar yang menyapu pesisir barat Sumatera.

14. 1854: Nankai, Tokai, dan Kyushu, Jepang
Gempa Ansei terdiri atas dua gempa 8,4 SR dan satu gempa 7,4 SR dalam tiga hari, yang menghasilkan gelombang setinggi 28 meter dan menewaskan 100 ribu orang.

15. 1868: Kepulauan Hawaii
Gempa 7,5 SR memicu longsor Gunung Mauna Loa, yang memicu tsunami setinggi 18 meter. Tsunami menyapu semua rumah dan manusia di pulau itu.

16. 1868: Arica, Cile
Gempa 8,5 SR di palung laut Peru-Cile melahirkan tsunami yang menerjang pelabuhan Arica dan Peru, menewaskan 70 ribu orang.

17. 1883: Krakatau, Selat Sunda, Indonesia
Muntahan magma Krakatau menyebabkan dasar laut runtuh dan menimbulkan tsunami hingga 40 meter di atas permukaan laut. Tsunami menerjang Samudra Hindia dan Pasifik hingga ke pantai barat Amerika dan Amerika Selatan.

18. 1896: Meiji Sanriku, Jepang
Tsunami mencapai 30 meter dan menewaskan 27 ribu orang.

19. 1923: Kanto, Jepang
Gempa besar Kanto meratakan Tokyo, Yokohama, dan sekitarnya, diikuti tsunami 12 meter.

20. 1958: Teluk Lituya, Alaska, Amerika
Gempa menyebabkan megatsunami setinggi 520 meter.

21. 1960: Valdivia, Cile
Gempa terbesar, 9,5 SR di lepas pantai Cile memicu tsunami paling dahsyat pada abad ke-20. Gelombang setinggi 25 meter menyebar ke Samudra Pasifik hingga pantai Sanriku, Jepang, 22 jam kemudian. Lebih dari 6.000 orang di seluruh dunia tewas.

22. 1964: Alaska, Amerika
Gempa 9,2 SR mengguncang Alaska, British Columbia, California, dan kota pantai di barat laut Pasifik serta menimbulkan tsunami lebih dari 30 meter.

23. 2004: Pantai barat Aceh, Samudra Hindia
Pada 26 Desember, gempa 9,1 SR menimbulkan tsunami besar yang menewaskan 166 ribu di Aceh dan 320 ribu orang dari delapan negara yang dilewati gelombang itu hingga ke Thailand, pantai timur India, Sri Lanka, bahkan pantai timur Afrika di Somalia, Kenya, dan Tanzania.

24. 2005: Nias, Indonesia
Gempa 8,7 SR di lepas pantai Nias menewaskan 1.300 orang.

25. 2006: Pangandaran, Indonesia
Gempa 7,7 SR mengguncang dasar Samudra Hindia, 200 km selatan Pangandaran, memicu gelombang tinggi hingga 6 meter di Pantai Cimerak. Sekitar 800 orang dilaporkan hilang.

26. 2007: Kepulauan Solomon
Gempa 8,1 SR dekat Kepulauan Solomon menimbulkan tsunami setinggi 5 meter, yang menyebar hingga ke Jepang, Selandia Baru, dan Hawaii.

27. 2011: Sendai, Jepang
Gempa kekuatan 8,9 SR di pesisir timur Honshu, Jepang, memicu tsunami setinggi 10 meter dan menyebar ke Samudra Pasifik.

Kapal terseret pusaranTsunami-Jepang - NHK


tokyo dirusak gempa hebat dan gelombang tsunami