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Apa yang Terjadi Pada Tubuh Saat Kita Tidur ?

Tidur bukan hanya sekedar istirahat, tapi jauh dari itu ada proses perbaikan pada seluruh organ tubuh. Manusia menghabiskan sekitar sepertiga umurnya untuk tidur. Apa saja yang terjadi pada tubuh saat tidur?

Tak hanya mengistirahatkan otot, saat tidur tubuh mengalami perbaikan dan detoksifikasi (mengeluarkan racun). Tidur juga memberi kesempatan bagi sistem kekebalan tubuh untuk memproduksi hormon-hormon imunitas (kekebalan tubuh).

Pola tidur yang buruk berhubungan dengan kesehatan yang buruk pula. Kurang tidur yang kronis dapat menyebabkan sejumlah masalah kesehatan seperti tekanan darah tinggi, obesitas, depresi, produksi hormon tidak teratur, sistem kekebalan tubuh lemah, penurunan memori, mudah marah dan penurunan konsentrasi.

Berikut beberapa hal yang terjadi pada organ tubuh saat manusia tidur seperti dilansir Dailymail.

1. Otak
Meski tampak pasif, tidak aktif dan aktivitas otak turun sekitar 40 persen, tetapi otak tetap sangat aktif selama Anda tidur.

Tidur malam yang khas terdiri dari lima siklus tidur yang berbeda, masing-masing berlangsung sekitar 90 menit. Empat tahap pertama setiap siklus dianggap sebagai tidur tenang atau non-rapid eye move-ment (NREM). Tahap terakhir disebut dengan gerakan mata cepat atau rapid eye movement (REM).

Selama tahap pertama dari tidur ada gelombang otak undulations kecil. Selama tahap kedua, gelombang ini diselingi dengan sinyal listrik yang disebut sleep spindles, yaitu semburan kecil dari aktivitas yang berlangsung beberapa detik dan membuat keadaan tenang.

Tahap ketiga terjadi gelombang lambat yang besar, semakin besar dan lambat gelombang otak makan tidur akan semakin dalam. Pada tahap keempat, 50 persen gelombang otak melambat. Pada titik ini, 40 persen aliran darah normal di otak dialihkan ke otot untuk mengembalikan energi.

Tidur REM adalah tingkat tertinggi aktivitas otak. Tahap ini biasanya berhubungan dengan mimpi yang dipicu oleh pons, yaitu bagian dari batang otak yang mengirimkan impuls saraf antara sumsum tulang belakang dan otak.

2. Mata
Meski tertutup, pada saat tidur mata bisa tetap bergerak. Gerakan mata tersebut menunjukkan perbedaan pada tahapan tidur, gerakan paling cepat terjadi pada saat tidur REM (rapid eye movement).

3. Hormon
Selama terjaga, tubuh membakar oksigen dan makanan untuk menyediakan energi. Kondisi ini disebut dengan tingkat katabolik yang didominasi dengan rangsangan hormon adrenalin dan kortisteroid.

Tetapi saat tidur, sistem hormon akan berpindah pada tahap anabolik, yaitu konversi energi untuk perbaikan dan pertumbuhan. Pada tahap ini tingkat hormon adrenalin dan kortikosteroid turun dan tubuh mulai memproduksi hormon pertumbuhan (human growth hormone atau HGH), melatonin, juga hormon seks testosteron, hormon kesuburan, FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone dan hormon LH (luteinizing hormone).

HGH mendorong pertumbuhan, pemeliharaan dan perbaikan otot dan tulang dengan memfasilitasi penggunaan asam amino. Sedangkan melatonin adalah hormon yang diproduksi untuk membantu manusia untuk tidur. Hormon ini disekresikan oleh kelenjar pineal jauh di dalam otak, ini membantu tubuh mengontrol irama dan siklus tidur-bangun.

4. Sistem kekebalan
Terjadi peningkatan produksi sistem kekebalan tubuh dan protein tertentu selama tidur, sebagai agen tertentu yang memerangi penyakit. Pembunuh kanker yang disebut TNF (tumour necrosis factor) juga dipompa melalui pembuluh darah saat tidur. Inilah yang menyebabkan tidur yang cukup dapat membantu melawan infeksi.

5. Suhu tubuh
Pada malam hari, suhu tubuh bersamaan dengan adrenalin mulai turun. Berkeringat mungkin terjadi sebagai usaha tubuh untuk mencoba memerangi kehilangan panas.

6. Kulit
Selama tidur nyenyak, tingkat metabolisme kulit dipercepat dan banyak sel-sel tubuh menunjukkan peningkatan produksi dan mengurangi kerusakan protein. Inilah yang menyebabkan tidur malam yang cukup dapat mempercantik kulit.

7. Pernapasan
Ketika tertidur, otot tenggorokan akan rileks sehingga tenggorokan semakin sempit setiap kali menghirup udara. Mendengkur terjadi ketika tenggorokan menyempit dan bagian dari saluran udara bergetar.

8. Mulut
Air liur diperlukan untuk melumasi mulut dan untuk makan. Tapi selama tidur, aliran saliva berkurang sehingga menyebabkan mulut kering di pagi hari. Namun, mulut bisa sangat aktif selama tidur, yang menyebabkan orang secara tidak sadar mengertakkan gigi pada saat tidur.

9. Otot
Meskipun orang dapat mengubah posisi tidur sekitar 35 kali semalam, otot-otot tubuh tetap rileks. Hal ini memberikan kesempatan bagi jaringan untuk diperbaiki dan dipulihkan.

10. Darah
Denyut jantung turun antara 10 dan 30 denyut per menit ketika tidur. Hal ini menghasilkan penurunan tekanan darah, yang terjadi dalam tidur nyenyak. Selama istirahat, darah mengalir dari otak, melemaskan arteri dan membuat anggota tubuh yang lebih besar. Sel-sel dan jaringan yang memecah untuk menghasilkan limbah beracun juga menjadi kurang aktif saat tidur. Hal ini memberikan kesempatan untuk jaringan yang rusak untuk dibangun kembali.

11. Sistem pencernaan
Selama tidur, kecepatan sistem pencernaan akan melambat. Untuk alasan ini, makan larut malam tidak dianjurkan karena enzim dan asam lambung yang berfungsi untuk mengubah makanan menjadi energi tidak aktif, sehingga bisa menumpuk kalori dalam tubuh.