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7 Penyebab Sperma Menjadi Sedikit

Proses pembuahan yang kurang mulus tidak hanya ditentukan oleh kesehatan alat reproduksi wanita. Pria juga menyumbang peran pada kegagalan pembuahan. Bahkan, dari 7 juta pasangan yang kurang subur, 40 persennya disebabkan karena jumlah sperma yang sedikit. 

Salah satu kriteria kesuburan pria menurut Badan Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) adalah terdapat 15 juta ekor sperma dalam setiap mililiter cairan mani. Jika ada kelainan jumlah, bisa dikatakan pria tersebut mengalami gangguan kesuburan.

Beberapa kondisi medis memang bisa menyebabkan rendahnya kualitas sperma, namun faktor lingkungan juga berpengaruh. Apa sajakah?

1. Kegemukan
Bobot tubuh berlebih tidak hanya memengaruhi jumlah sel sperma tapi juga meningkatkan kerusakan sel seperma. Menurut penelitian dari Harvard University, hal itu disebabkan karena kelebihan lemak bisa mengurangi kadar hormon testosteron dan meningkatkan estradiol, hormon seks wanita. 

2. Obat impotensi
Meski pria berusia lanjut merupakan target obat disfungsi ereksi, kini makin banyak saja pria berusia muda yang ikut mengonsumsi pil biru dan sejenisnya tanpa resep dokter. Padahal hasil riset yang dilakukan di Inggris menemukan obat disfungsi ereksi seperti Viagra, Levitra dan Cialis bisa merusak kepala sperma sehingga sperma makin sulit untuk melakukan penetrasi ke dalam sel telur dan memulai pembelahan sel. 

3. Kekurangan zinc
Sebuah studi menemukan kadar zinc pada pria yang subur lebih tinggi dibanding pada pria yang infertil. Para ahli menyebutkan zinc berperan untuk melawan radikal bebas penyebab kerusakan sel sperma. Penuhi kebutuhan akan zinc melalui sereal, multivitamin atau konsumsi daging.

4. Radiasi ponsel
Peneliti dari Cleveland Clinic menemukan makin sering pria menggunakan ponselnya, makin rendah jumlah sperma yang dihasilkannya. Penelitian terpisah yang dilakukan tim dari Australia menemukan sebabnya. Frekuensi 1,8 gigahertz yang dipakai dalam ponsel akan meningkatkan jumlah radikal bebas yang bisa merusak sel sperma dan mengurangi kemampuan gerak sperma.

5. Kurang asupan serat
Tim dari University of California menemukan pria yang kekurangan asam folat, memiliki sperma dengan jumlah kromosom yang salah 20 persen lebih tinggi dibanding pria yang cukup akan asam folat. Sumber terbaik asam folat adalah sayuran hijau, seperti bayam, asparagus, dan lain sebagainya.

6. Merokok
Kebiasaan merokok bukan hanya menyebabkan penyakit kronis, namun juga memengaruhi jumlah dan kualitas sperma. Para ahli percaya, saat merokok tubuh kita akan dibanjiri oleh radikal bebas. Bukan cuma menyebabkan sel kanker, hal ini juga akan memicu kerusakan DNA pada sperma.

7. Depresi
Para ahli dari Cornell University mengungkapkan, seorang pria yang mengonsumsi obat antidepresan beresiko tinggi mengalami kerusakan DNA pada spermanya. Kerusakan DNA tersebut akan menyebabkan berkurangnya kesuburan dan meningkatkan risiko cacat pada janin.