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5 Macam Bencana Alam Yang Banyak Memakan Korban


5. Tornado
Angin Tornado adalah suatu angin pusaran kuat skala menengah dari kumpulan arus kuat awan gelap yang merentang ke permukaan bumi. Saat muncul angin Tornado, kerap disertai dengan satu atau beberapa pilar awan berbentuk corong seperti “belalai gajah” dari dasar awan dan menjulur ke bawah, dengan disertai badai angin dan hujan, petir atau rambun (batu es). Jika Tornado melewati permukaan air, ia dapat menarik air ke atas, dan membentuk tiang air, berdekatan dengan awan. Jika melewati daratan, kerap akan merobohkan rumah, menumbangkan tiang listrik, bahkan menarik manusia, ternak atau benda-benda lain ke dalam pusarannya dan dibawa ketempat lain. Angin Tornado kerap terjadi pada saat hujan disertai petir di musim panas, dan sebagian besar muncul pada sore hari hingga menjelang malam, skala terjangannya kecil, diameter Tornado umumnya berkisar antara puluhan hingga ratusan meter. Waktu berlangsungnya Tornado biasanya hanya beberapa menit, paling lama juga tidak lebih dari beberapa jam. Terjangan anginnya sangat kuat, kecepatan angin di sekitar pusat dapat mencapai 100-200 meter/jam. Daya perusaknya sangat kuat, tempat yang dilalui angin Tornado, kerap akan membuat pohon-pohon yang dilaluinya tercabut dari akarnya, menjungkir balikan mobil, menghancurkan bangunan dan sebagainya, terkadang menarik pergi manusia.

4. Thypoon (Taufan) 
Sistem siklon (pusaran angin) daerah tropis yang agak kuat yang terjadi di perairan laut selatan dan Samudera Pasifik barat, disebut Thypoon. Pada 1989 silam, World Meteorological Organization (WMO) menetapkan, bahwa menurut ukuran rata-rata kekuatan angin terkuat di sekitar pusat pusaran angin daerah tropis, pusaran angin daerah tropis dibagi 4 kategori yaitu tekanan rendah tropis, badai angin tropis, badai angin tropis kuat dan Taufan. Pusaran angin tropis dengan kekuatan angin di bawah 8 tingkat disebut tekanan rendah tropis, 8-9 tingkat disebut badai angin tropis, 10-11 tingkat disebut badai angin tropis kuat, 12 atau di atas 12 tingkat disebut Taufan. Pusaran angin tropis dengan kekuatan angin 12 tingkat atau di atas 12 tingkat di sekitar pusat Australia, samudera pasifik timur, samudera atlantik disebut Thypoon.

3. Earthquake (Gempa Bumi) 
Gempa bumi, yaitu getaran cepat litosfer. Berdasarkan sebab terjadinya gempa bumi dapat dibagi dua jenis : gempa bumi tektonik dan gempa bumi vulkanik. Gempa bumi tektonik dampaknya paling luas pada manusia. Terjadinya gempa bumi ini karena tegangan bagian dalam bumi, sehingga menyebabkan perubahan struktural bumi. Lapisan batuan dalam kerak bumi, dimana dibawah efek tegangan bumi dalam jangka panjang, akan terjadi kemiringan dan lekukan, saat tegangan bumi yang terakumulasi melampaui batas maksimum yang dapat ditahan lapisan batuan, maka akan terjadi kesalahan letak dan retakan secara tiba-tiba di daerah lapisan batuan yang lemah, sehingga energi yang terakumulasi dalam jangka waktu panjang tiba-tiba dilepaskan, dan menyebar ke 4 penjuru dalam bentuk gelombang gempa, sehingga terjadi getaran di permukaan bumi.

2. Tsunami
Tsunami adalah suatu gelombang laut yang memiliki daya perusak yang kuat. Aktivitas bumi seperti gempa bawah laut, letusan gunung berapi atau tanah longsor dan sebagainya kemungkinan juga akan mengakibatkan Tsunami. Ketika terjadi gempa, stratum (lapisan) dasar laut mengalami keretakan, sebagian stratum naik atau tenggelam secara tiba-tiba, dan inilah yang mengakibatkan segenap lapisan dari dasar laut hingga ke permukaan mengalami “goncangan” keras. “Goncangan” ini tidak sama dengan gelombang yang biasa kita jumpai. Gelombang laut umumnya hanya naik di sekitar permukaan, tingkat kedalamannya tidak besar. Sedang “goncangan” air laut yang disebabkan gempa adalah fluktuasi segenap sistem air dari permukaan laut ke permukaan, energi yang terkandung di dalamnya sangat mengejutkan.

1. Vulcano (Letusan Gunung Berapi)
Gunung berapi bukan gunung yang menyemburkan “api”, yang disemburkannya adalah suatu zat kental bersuhu tinggi, dan zat ini disebut magma (lahar). Saat gunung berapi meletus, pemandangan akan tampak sangat menakjubkan. Karena suhunya yang tinggi, dan mendapat tekanan kuat dari kerak bumi, karena itu, jika bertemu dengan daerah yang agak tipis dan bercelah, maka laharnya akan meluncur ke permukaan dengan deras. Terjadinya gunung berapi adalah di bawah permukaan bumi, daerah yang semakin dalam, maka suhunya juga akan semakin tinggi, di kedalaman sekitar 20 mil, tingginya suhu cukup melumerkan sebagian besar batuan. Saat batuan lumer akan mengembang dan perlu ruang yang lebih luas. Materi yang dilumerkan oleh suhu tinggi ini akan naik menelusuri celah. Saat tekanan lahar lebih besar dari tekanan batuan di permukaannya, akan meletus dan membentuk sebuah gunung berapi.